The Calling 

However, Calvinists view the Calling as either irresistible to an allegedly, eternally elect person vs. unanswerable for an alleged, eternally non-elect person.

Stephen Hitchcock: “‘Called’ for the Calvinist is God making regenerate those who are to be saved, who cannot exercise faith on their own.” (Recanting Calvinism, p.106) 

Hitchcock adds: “So much for Justification by faith! It is the call that saves according to the Calvinist. All you need is to be Effectually Called and you ‘are effectually ushered into the fellowship of Christ.’”  (Recanting Calvinism, p.107) 

John Calvin on The Calling: “ lawgiver He illuminates all with the external doctrine of life, in this first sense calling all men to life. But in the other sense, He brings to life whom He will, as Father regenerating by the Spirit only His sons.” (Concerning the Eternal Predestination of God, p.106, emphasis mine)

Calvin explains: “The calling is therefore a certain and specific calling, which seals and ratifies the eternal election of God so as to make manifest what was before hidden in God.”  (Concerning the Eternal Predestination of God, p.70, emphasis mine) 

Calvin continues: “Our Heavenly Father invites everyone to faith by the external, human voice; but he effectually calls by his Spirit only those he has decided to save. Now if God’s election, by which he ordains us to life, is the cause of faith and salvation, nothing remains for worthiness or merits.” (Acts: Calvin, Crossway Classic Commentaries, p.229, emphasis mine) 

4-Point Calvinist, Ron Rhodes, explains the Calvinist perspective: “Theologians point out that the phrase ‘many are invited, but few are chosen’ (Matthew 22:14) indicates that God issues two calls to sinners inviting them to receive His salvation: a general call to all and a specific call (or election) to some.” (Commonly Misunderstood Bible Verses, p.154, emphasis mine)

In contrast, while Arminianism agrees that there are two calls, it is not for an ineffectual call to the alleged, eternally non-elect goats vs. an effectual call to the alleged, eternally elect sheep. Instead, Arminianism’s two calls reflect:

Arminian, Robert Shank: “We have observed that the Gospel call is to all men alike, and that those who answer affirmatively become in a particular sense ‘the called.’” (Elect in the Son, p.208)

This is evident at Romans 8:28: “And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose.” [KJV] Speaking of this kind of calling, consider the following:

J. Vernon McGee: “My friend, if you are a believer, you are a minister of Christ. What kind of message are you giving? Notice that a minister of Christ is a ‘steward of the mysteries of God.’ ... The ‘mystery’ here is actually the Gospel, the Word of God. Since we are stewards of the ‘mysteries of God,’ we are to dispense those mysteries. ... That is the calling of a steward of the mysteries of God, and I can’t think of any calling higher than that. ‘Moreover it is required in stewards, that a man be found faithful’ [1 Cor. 4:2]. Notice that it is not required of a steward to be eloquent or to have many gifts, only that he be found faithful.” (Thru the Bible commentary series: First Corinthians, pp.49-50, emphasis mine)

Examples of the Christian’s Calling: 

I therefore, the prisoner of the Lord, beseech you that ye walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called.” (Ephesians 4:1, KJV)

Who has saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace which was granted us in Christ Jesus from all eternity.” (2nd Timothy 1:9)

And we know that God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose.” (Romans 8:28)

Faithful is He who calls you, and He also will bring it to pass.” (1st Thessalonians 5:24)
What John Calvin is describing is what Calvinism terms the “General Call” to everyone vs. the “Effectual Call” (i.e. Irresistible Grace) in terms of the Father’s drawing of His eternally elect sheep.
Examples of the General Invitation: 

Therefore having overlooked the times of ignorance, God is now declaring to men that all people everywhere should repent, because He has fixed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness through a Man whom He has appointed, having furnished proof to all men by raising Him from the dead.” (Acts 17:30-31)

Go therefore to the main highways, and as many as you find there, invite to the wedding feast.’ Those slaves went out into the streets and gathered together all they found, both evil and good; and the wedding hall was filled with dinner guests.”  (Matthew 22:9-10)

For many are called, but few are chosen.” (Matthew 22:14)
  • God calls everyone to live IN Christ, that is, to become saved (which to Calvinism is the ineffectual, General Call).

  • God calls Christians to live FOR Christ, that is, in terms of their vocation in Christ (which Christians often refer to as “their calling,” whether to be a Pastor, or to the Mission Field, ect.)
Question:  From a biblical standpoint, what is the calling of God?

Answer:  There is the calling to become a Christian, when Jesus knocks upon the door of your heart, and there is also the calling which relates to your purpose as a Christian.
A word about the CalvinistGeneral Call to the alleged non-elect:

The Calvinistic General Call seems like pretending to me, insomuch that the God portrayed by Calvinism merely pretends to be interested in saving the alleged non-elect, whom the God portrayed by Calvinism has no intention whatsoever of actually saving, since it is by design that the [alleged] non-elect have no Savior who died for them, as per the Calvinist doctrine of a Limited Atonement. The General Call of Calvinism therefore seem like false heroism.