Romans chapters 9-11

A main theme of the book of Romans is an appeal to reach the unconverted Jew for Christ, evidenced by the many Jewish illustrations present. Chapter 9 specifically addresses the Jewish objections for conversion to Christianity, by specifically refuting the notion of (1) ancestral salvation and (2) salvation though the Law. Additionally, this chapter addresses (a) an anticipated Jewish reaction to both Gods forewarned hardening of the Jews (compare with Jeremiah 18:1-13 and Isaiah 6:9-10) and (b) explains that God’s method of salvation has always been through faith, and extends to anyone else who should adopt the faith of Abraham. Like John 6, this chapter has absolutely nothing to do with Calvinism.

Here is a link to an article which provides an excellent review of Romans 9.

From the start, Paul identifies with the Jew by pointing out the depraved state of the Gentiles, and their condemnation under the Law. But then Paul challenges the Jew with a charge of hypocrisy, when they do some of the very same things as the Gentiles. Paul then points out the hopelessness of achieving righteousness through the Law, while simultaneously pointing out that not all was lost, since there were well known historical Jews such as Abraham, Moses and David who did, in fact, achieve a state of righteousness with God, and this is where Paul points out that it was not through the Law after all, but by faith. This becomes the perfect segue into Christ being the ultimate end of faith. Paul extols the riches of Christ and all that God has eternally stored up for those who believe in Him. That’s when we reach Romans 9. The standing question is that if Christ is the Messiah of the Jews, then why don’t the Jews believe in Him? There’s actually a long history there. God reached out to the Jews with many offers of grace, until God finally had enough, which resulted in their hardening, as recorded at Isaiah 6:9-10, in which God states that He will harden Israel so that they could not receive His Son, or at least, they would not receive His Son without first reconciliation with God. God was not going to have people reject Him, while instead embracing a conquering Messiah to deliver Israel from the Romans. So God sent Christ in the same image of the prophets whom the Jews persecuted before Him. Now Paul’s objective at this stage of Romans 9 was to develop the backdrop for the illustration of the Olive Tree described at Romans 11, in terms of the natural and wild branches, in which the natural branches were being cut off, for a time, so that the wild branches could be grafted in. What Paul was doing in Romans 9 was expressing his sincere passion for the Jew, which was also God’s passion, while highlighting the fact that God was now, as a result of Jewish unbelief, turning to the Gentiles in order to graft them in. Jesus warned the Jews with illustrations that this was going to happen. (Matthew 21:33-45) So Paul sets up God’s sovereign right to first choose the Jewish nation (by using examples like with Isaac, the one chosen to receive the inheritance, including his son Jacob), as the basis to suggest that God also has the right to choose the Gentiles, which validates Paul’s ministry of the gospel to the Gentiles. In other words, if God has the sovereign right to choose the Jews, then it stands to reason that He has the same right to graft in the Gentiles. Additionally, He has the same right to harden the Jews, which is what He warned at Jeremiah 18:1-13 and what He did at Isaiah 6:9-10, and ultimately quoted as its fulfillment at John 12:36-43. When Paul asks the question of what right does the pot have in responding back to the Potter, this is a question aimed at the unbelieving Jews (or at least, unbelieving in the Messiah, Christ), in anticipation of their protest against God’s hardening, in terms of the Jews, the natural branches, having been removed from the Olive Tree. But even despite the hardening, Paul points out that it is a partial hardening until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. So this is what I see going on in the book of Romans, and it has nothing to do with either Calvinism or Arminianism.

Calvinist, Charles Spurgeon, states: “It would also be unnecessary to repeat the whole of the 9th chapter of Romans. As long as that remains in the Bible, no man shall be able to prove Arminianism; so long as that is written there, not the most violent contortions of the passage will ever be able to exterminate the doctrine of election from the Scriptures.” (Election, emphasis mine)

Daniel Whedon explains: “The early Christian fathers, like Paul, encountered the same doctrine of unconditional election of all Jews.” (Commentary on the New Testament, Vol.III: Acts-Romans, p.350, emphasis mine)

Whedon adds: “With this proud expectation of salvation by blood and circumcision--by birth and works--Paul’s Christianity, salvation by faith in Christ, came into deadly issue.” (Commentary on the New Testament, Vol.III: Acts-Romans, p.350, emphasis mine)

Whedon writes: “After expressing profound grief at unbelieving Israel’s downfall (1-5), Paul maintains that from the patriarchs downward it was the spiritual Israel by faith that was accepted, and the false Israel by unfaith that was rejected (6-13) that this accords with Old Testament history (14-18), with the true principles of free-agency and probation (19-24), with ancient prediction (25-29), all presupposing that the law of acceptance by faith and rejection by unfaith underlies the whole history (30-33).”  (Commentary on the New Testament, Vol.III: Acts-Romans, pp.350-351, emphasis mine)

In Romans 9, “profound grief meets proud expectation.

One member of The Society of Evangelical Arminians explains: “I see Romans 9 as a lesson that God is sovereign and can do as He pleases and so save whomever He wants to save (it is not dealing primarily with the issue of salvation but of sovereignty, especially in the history of Israel). The chapter begins with a history lesson of how God was sovereign in the history of Israel. Romans 10 is then on the issue of salvation through faith. Romans 11 then puts it all together in relation to both Jews and Gentiles. Calvinists run to Romans 9 to ‘prove’ their view. Romans 9 proves that God is sovereign. But it is an unjustified jump from the fact that God is sovereign and so does as He pleases, to the conclusion that He has preselected who would be saved and damned before they ever existed. If you treat Romans 9-11 as the unit that it is, and as a progressive argument, it argues clearly against the Calvinist view and for the Noncalvinist view.” (SEA)

Arminian, Robert Shank, explains: “...Romans 9 must be understood in light of Romans 9:30-11:36, in which Paul affirms that, instead of acting arbitrarily toward men (as He has a right to do as sovereign Creator), God is governed in His actions by His purpose of grace toward all men (Romans 11:32, Titus 2:11, ect.).” (Elect in the Son, p.174)

Michael Brown explains: “In Romans, the ninth chapter, you know where Paul makes it clear that God hardens who He wants and has mercy on who He wants, he comes to the conclusion of it all, which is that God wants to have mercy on all. So does it just mean Jew and Gentile generically? Isn’t the whole purpose of the passage, the mystery of Israel, and where this fits in with the salvation of the Gentiles?, and tells us at the conclusion that God wants to have mercy on all?” (Why I Am Not a Calvinist)

Yes, the Jews rejected the Gospel, but they are the “chosen people.” How does their rejection of the Gospel justify Paul turning to the Gentiles and preaching the Gospel to them? First, God appointed him to it. Second, God will accept the Gentiles on the same grounds that He accepted their fore-father, Abraham, through faith. Therefore, here it is at Romans 9-11 that Paul deals with the controversy between Jew and Gentile, defending the Gospel, in terms of both God’s sovereign right to save who He will and how He will.

First, Paul didn’t turn to the Gentiles because he stopped loving the Jews. Far from it! Paul stated that he wished that all of the Jews could be saved, and was willing to go to Hell, if that’s what it would take for them to be saved: “In the presence of Christ, I speak with utter truthfulness—I do not lie—and my conscience and the Holy Spirit confirm that what I am saying is true. My heart is filled with bitter sorrow and unending grief for my people, my Jewish brothers and sisters. I would be willing to be forever cursed—cut off from Christ!—if that would save them.” (Romans 9:1-3, NLT)

That’s why I do not feel that Romans 9:19 has anything to do with God decreeing sin, and then trying to claim innocence from it. The thrust of Romans chapters 9-11 is Paul’s message to the Jew in terms of why he is reaching out to the Gentiles, and why the Jewish nation has become alienated from God, and what it would take to be restored.

This Youtube clip captures several of the points that Ive raised in my articles on Romans chapter 9.

Paul stated at Acts 13:45-47:But when the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy and began contradicting the things spoken by Paul, and were blaspheming. Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly and said, ‘It was necessary that the word of God be spoken to you first; since you repudiate it and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we are turning to the Gentiles. For so the Lord has commanded us, “I have placed you as a light for the Gentiles, that you may bring salvation to the end of the earth.”’
Related Articles:

Brian Abasciano: In Brian Abasciano’s article Corporate Election in Romans 9: A Reply to Thomas Schreiner, Abasciano corrects Schreiner’s mistaken notion that corporate election denies any place to the individual. He argues that election is primarily corporate based on 1) the OT concept of election, 2) Paul’s statements about election to salvation and the fact that 3) first century culture was collectivist rather than individualistic. However, even though the primary focus of election is the community, the fact remains that the individual is elect secondarily as a member of the community. All this sets the stage for correctly understanding election in Romans 9 and answering Schreiner’s arguments.

Brian Abasciano:         Paul’s Use of the Old Testament in Romans 9:1-9

Brennon Hartshorn:    My exegesis of Romans 9

Tektonics:Romans 9 and Calvinisms

John Parkinson:   John F. Parkinson, Romans 9 in Context

Various:  Arminian Internet Resources on Romans 9
Calvinists believe that Romans 9 affirms Predestination and Unconditional Election. The reality, however, is that this was what Paul was refuting, since the Jews believed in an erroneous form of Predestination and Unconditional Election, namely that as Jews, being physical descendents of Abraham, were unconditionally predestined to God’s blessings as His covenant people. Paul then provides a tree illustration of grafting.
Question:  What is the objective of the “Book of Romans”?

Answer:   “But if you bear the name ‘Jew’ and rely upon the Law and boast in God, and know His will and approve the things that are essential, being instructed out of the Law, and are confident that you yourself are a guide to the blind, a light to those who are in darkness, a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of the immature, having in the Law the embodiment of knowledge and of the truth, you, therefore, who teach another, do you not teach yourself? You who preach that one shall not steal, do you steal?” (Romans 2:17-21) Skip forward to Romans 9:19-20: “You will say to me then, ‘Why does He still find fault? For who resists His will?‘’ On the contrary, who are you, O man, who answers back to God? The thing molded will not say to the molder, ‘Why did you make me like this,’ will it?

The “you” is the unbelieving Jew that Paul is trying to reach. Romans chapter 9 begins with a profession of Paul’s love for...the Jew. The whole Book of Romans is a tract on how to reach the Jews for Christ, evidenced by its many Jewish themes, and Paul identifies with the Jew by first citing the Law, and then by pointing out that the Law doesn’t save, and yet some Jews were saved, such as Abraham and others. So what did they do? Paul lays out the Gospel of faith, in which Christ is the ultimate object of faith. Paul elaborates upon everything stored up in Christ, until we get to Romans 9, which deals with the pending question of, Okay, then why don’t God’s people accept this Messiah, Jesus? For this, Paul points out a little history. The Potter example is straight from Jeremiah chapter 18, which Calvinists will only comment on if you drag them to it. Indeed, there is a hardening, and its of the Jews, though both temporary and partial. (Romans 11:25) This is the essential context that Calvinists miss.
Paul validates the Gospel two-fold:

1) God has the divine right to show mercy upon whom He will and to harden whom He will: “So then He has mercy on whom He desires, and He hardens whom He desires.” (Romans 9:18) To whom does God wish to show mercy? The Gentiles. These are the “other sheep” that Jesus mentioned (John 10:16), in which Paul was a “minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles.” (Romans 15:16)

2) God is now accepting the Gentiles on the same exact basis upon which He accepted their fore-father, Abraham, and that if they would return to the roots of their religion, that is, by faith, they would recognize the rightful basis for his Gentile ministry, and that God has reached out to the Gentiles, in part, to spur the Jews to jealousy: “If somehow I might move to jealousy my fellow countrymen and save some of them.” (Romans 11:14)
Study notes by H.L. Wilmington:

Romans 9-11 Paul is discussing Nations, not Individuals.

Romans: Nine
A. The sovereignty of God and Israel's selection in the past (Rom 9).
1. The twofold confession of Paul (1-3).
2. The ninefold advantage of Israel (9:4-5).
a. They were Israelites. They were a special nation (Deut 7:6), one having power with God (Gen 32:28).
b. They enjoyed the adoption. The entire nation had been adopted by God (Ex 4:22; Deut 14:1; Jer 31:9).
c. They had the glory. A reference to the Shekinah cloud, that visible, luminous appearance of God's presence. (Ex 13:21-22; Num 9:17-22; Ex 14:19,20,24; Ex 40:34-48; I Ki 8:10-11; II Chron 5:13-14; Exek 10)
d. They had the covenants.
(1) The Abrahamic Covenant-promising a mighty nation (Gen 12:2,3,7; 13:14-17; 15:5,18; 17:8)'
(2) The Palestine Covenant-promising a land (Deut 30:3).
(3) The Davidic Covenant-promising an eternal kingdom (II Sam 7:12-16; 23:5; II Chron 13;5).
(4) The new covenant-promising new hearts (Jer 31:31-34).
e. They had the law (Ex 20; Duet 5).
f. They had the services of God. It was Israel which ministered in both the tabernacles and the temple.
g. They had the promises . This included both Christ's birth and future reign (Isa 9:6-7).
h. They had the fathers. Israel enjoyed a regenerate ancestry, which included such giants as Abraham, Moses, David, etc.
i. They produced that line which led to the humanity of Christ (Mt 1:1-16; Lk 3:23-38).
3. The five fold example of history (9:6-29). Paul now proves God's sovereign and unmerited Grace from Israel's own history.
a. The example of Ishmael and Isaac (9:6-9). Only the descendants of Isaac would become citizens of God's chosen nation.
b. The example of Esau and Jacob (9:10-13). This referring to Israel and Edom and not the two boys.
c. The example of Pharaoh (9:14-23).
(1) The facts of God dealing with Israel and Pharaoh.
(a) God determined to pardon sinful Israel with undeserved Grace. (9:15).
(b) God determined to punish sinful Pharaoh with deserved judgment. (9:17).
(2) The fairness of God's dealings with Israel and Pharaoh. Paul hear answers two subjects:
(a) That God is not righteous. Some would claim that he was unfair in hardening Pharaoh's heart. It should be noted that on at least seven occasions in the book of Exodus we are told that God hardened the heart of Pharaoh (Ex 4:21; 7:3; 9:12; 10:1,20,27; 11:10).
Furthermore, it should be pointed out that on four occasions we are informed that Pharaoh hardened his own heart (Ex 7:22; 8:15,19; 9:35). The word "hardeneth" in 9:18 (kabed) is translated "heavy" in Exodus 17:12; 18:18; Psalms 38:4; Isaiah 1:4. Thus, God left his heart heavy with iniquities.
(b) Man is not responsible. (9:19). Paul spends little time on this objection, simply pointing out that potter has power over the clay he works with in choosing the kind of vessel he makes. It should be noted in (9:21) that Paul made the clay as it was, but that he worked with it ( see Jer 18:1-6; Isa 45:9; 64:6-8). Two kinds of vessels are described here: "The vessel of wrath fitted unto destruction " (9:22). This is in the middle voice, meaning voice, meaning "to fit oneself."
"The vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory" (9:23). The conclusion of the matter is that hell (destruction) is the deserved destination of the sinful man, while heaven (glory) is the undeserved destination of the saved man.
d. The example of Hosea (9:24-26). He predicted God would call out a "people which were not my people" (9:25; see also Hosea 1:10; 2:23). Here God's sovereignty is seen in reference to the saved Gentiles (I Pet 2:9-10).
e. The example of Isaiah (9:27-29). He predicted, "though the number of children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved" (9:27; see also Isa 1:9). Here God's sovereignty is seen in reference to the saved Israelite remnant.
4. The twofold conclusion of Paul (9:30-33).
a. The Gentiles, through Faith, had attained righteousness without ever seeking it.
b. Israel, through the law, had not attained righteousness even after seeking it. They looked for a bold lion, but God sent them a bleeding lamb. They wanted a throne; they were offered a cross.
Romans: Ten
B. The righteousness of God and Israel's rejection at present. Introduction: Romans 9 and 10 should always be read together. Chapter 9 shows why some Jews are saved, and chapter 10 explains why most are lost.
1. The source of righteousness (10:4-5). "For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone that believeth" (10:4). (See II Cor 3:6-11; Heb 7:11-19; Gal 3:24; Eph 2:15; Col 2:14.)
2. The availability of righteousness (10:6-8). "The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart" (10:8). Because of this, we need not to be concerned with:
a. The incarnation-"Who shall ascend into the heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from above)" (10:6).
b. The resurrection-"Who shall descend into the deep? (that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead)" (10:7).
3. The method of righteousness (10:9-10). Some have made oral confession a condition of salvation on the basis of 10:10, (see also 10:9.)
The Bible, of coarse, does not impose this limitation. Paul evidently was stressing the same truth found in James 2:20, that is, a genuine possession of Christ in one's heart will surely lead to
A confession of Christ with one's mouth. The fruit will prove the root. (See Mt 10:32; Lk 12:8; Jn 12:42-43; Mt 12:34.) The method, then, of righteousness, is Faith in Christ.
4. The scope of righteousness. (10:11-13)-whosoever (see 10:11,13). Paul had earlier shown that all men were lost. He now says that all men can be saved. Compare the "whosoever" mentioned here with that in Revelation 20:15.
5. The presentation of righteousness (10:14-15). These verses are a beautiful little discourse to demonstrate the necessity for taking the gospel which is intended for all, to all. In other words, world reconciliation demands world evangelization. Since salvation through Christ has been provided for all, it must now be proclaimed to all. Paul here summarizes God's program for world evangelism. It is in five steps.
a. In order to be saved, a sinner must call upon the Lord.
b. In order to call, he must believe.
c. In order to believe, he must hear.
d. In order to hear, there must must be a preacher. (This may refer to any vehicle carrying the gospel message, be it a human agent, tract, radio broadcast, etc.)
e. In order to preach, they must be sent. This means by God himself. (See Isa 6:8; Jn 15:16; 20:21.) Paul then quotes Isaiah 52:7, "How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace and bring glad tidings of good things!" The Greek word here translated beautiful means "full bloom, developed, mature." Paul may mean that witnessing for Christ produces a full-blooded, developed, and mature Christian.
6. The rejection of righteousness (10:1-3,16-21).
a. Israel has zeal without knowledge. One may also, of coarse, suffer the opposite-knowledge without zeal. The first leads to hot fanaticism (Gal 1:14; Acts 22:3). The second leads to cold formalism.
b. Paul's prayer was that God would give Israel this knowledge. He would have little in common with modern theology. Note the following statement by Reinhold Niebuhr: "Do not try to convert Jews.....Jews may find God more readily in their own Faith than in Christianity."
c. Paul applies David's words about creation (Rom 10:18; Ps 19:4) to that of salvation to demonstrate that Israel's unbelief was not due to the fact that they had never heard, for this opportunity had been as wide as the star-studded heavens.
d. Both Moses (Deut 32:21) and Isaiah (53:1; 65:1) has predicted this sad rejection (see Rom 10:16,19-20).
e. God has been so patient with His rebellious nation. "All day long [for over fifteen centuries, the entire age of the law] I have stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people" (Rom 10:21; Isa 65:2; see also Mt 23:37-39). Israel had this been guilty of:
(1) Disobedience of the Word of God.
(2) Disgruntlement with the God of the Word.
Romans: Eleven
C. The wisdom of God, and Israel's restoration in the Future (Rom 11). Paul has just discussed the rejection of Israel in chapter 10. He will now show that this rejection Elias neither total (1-25) nor final (26-33).
1. The rejection of was not total (11:1-25).
a. The factions of Israel (11:1-10). This nation is now placed into two separate categories:
(1) The minority group "Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the election of grace" (11:5). Paul offers a two fold proof that God always has his faithful remnant.
(a) As seen through his own conversion (11:1).
(b) As seen in the time of Elijah (11:2-4). Elijah felt he was the only believer during his day and actually made "intercession to God against Israel" (11:2).
But God (who will never answer this kind of prayer, regardless of who prays it) quickly informed him that: "I have reserved to myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to the image of Baal" (Rom 11:4; se also 1 Ki 19:10,14,18).
(2) The majority group: "and the rest were blinded" (11:7). Present-day Israel is thus plagued with a threefold blindness:
(a) The blindness caused by the fall of Adam (Eph 4:18).
(b) The blindness causes by Satan (2 Cor 4:4).
(c) The blindness caused by God (Rom 11:8).
This tragic spiritual blindness was predicted by both Isaiah (Isa 29:10; Rom 11:8) and David (Ps 69:22-23; Rom 11:9-10). The reason for this blindness is also predicted by David, namely the Jews' treatment of Christ. Note the words in Psalm 69:21 which preceded this judgment prophecy of blindness: "They gave me also gall for my meat; and in my thirst gave me vinegar to drink." (See fulfillment of this in Mt 27:34,48.)
b. The fullness of the Gentiles (11:11-25). This phrase (found in 11:25) should be distinguished from the times of the Gentiles mentioned by Christ in Luke 21:24.
(1) The "times" of the Gentiles is political in nature and refers to that period from the Babylonian captivity until the end of the Tribulation. (See Duet 28:28-68; 2 Chron 36:1-21; Dan 9:24-27.)
(2) The fullness of the Gentiles is spiritual in nature, and refers to that period of time covering the completion of the body of Christ, made up of the Jew and Gentile, saved from Pentecost to the Rapture. (See Acts 15:14; Eph 4:11-13; 1 Cor 12:12-13.)
The details of this Gentile fullness period are as follows:
(3) Believing Gentiles are at the present time being placed into God's tree of salvation.
(4) They are taken from an wild olive tree (11:17).
(5) They are grafted into a good olive tree (11:24). This process is, as Paul rightly observes, "contrary to nature" (11:24). Normally, when the wild is grafted into the good, the good is conquered by the wild. However, when the good is grafted to the wild, just the opposite takes place.
(6) Gentiles are warned against boasting because of their new status, "For if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he also spare not thee" (11:21).
At this point, two thoughts must be kept in mind.
(7) Paul is not teaching that the church has replaced Israel. He has already asked and answered this question in 11:1, "I say then, Hath God cast away his people? God forbid."
(8) Paul is not teaching that a saved Gentile may be cut off from this tree and lose his salvation. He is simply saying that since God did not spare the nation of Israel when they apostatized, he will likewise not spare an apostate church. Christendom is going on the same direction today as Israel once did, God will reject and judge them for it. (See 1 Tim 4:1-3; 2 Pet 1-22; Rev 3:14-22; 17:3-18.)
Paul offers these details concerning the fullness of the Gentiles, "For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery" (11:25). A mystery in the Bible is a previously hidden truth, not revealed in the Old Testament, but declared and, at times, explained in the New Testement.
9. There are twelve such mysteries. Without amplification, these are:
(a) The mystery of the kingdom of heaven (Mt 13:3-50; Mk 4:1-25; Lk 8:4-15).
(b) The mystery of the rapture (I Cor 15:51,52; 1 Thess 4:16).
(c) The mystery of the church as the body of Christ (Eph 3:11; 6:19; Col 4:3; Rom 16:25).
(d) The mystery of the church as the bride of Christ (Eph 5:28-32).
(e) The mystery of the indwelling Christ (Gal 2:20; Col 1:26-27).
(f) The mystery of the incarnate Christ (Col 2:2,9; 1 Cor 2:7).
(g) The mystery of godliness (1 Tim 3:16).
(h) The mystery of iniquity (2 Thess 2:3-12; Mt 13:33).
(i) The mystery of Israel's present blindness (Rom 11:25).
(j) The mystery of the seven stars (Rev 1:20).
(k) The mystery of Babylon the harlot (Rev 17:5,7).
(l) The mystery of God (Rev 10:7; 11:15-19).
In Romans 11:25 the mystery is that "blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in."
2. The rejection was not permanent (11:26-36).
a. The Israel of God (11:26-32).
(1) They would be restored through the ratification of their promised "For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins" (Rom 11:27; see also Isa 59:21; 27:9; Jer 31:31-37; Heb 8:8; 10:16; Zech 13:1).
(2) They would be restored through the return of their promises Christ. "There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob" (11:26; see Isa 59:20).
b. The God of Israel (11:33-36).
"O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor? Or who hath first given to him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again? For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen."
Paul here in Romans. (See also 15:33; 16:20; 16:24; 16:25-27.)
Romans 1-16 (KJV).
Romans 1-5 = Salvation
Romans 6-8 = Sanctification
Romans 9-11 = Sovereignty
Romans 12-16 = Service
Romans 1-5 Is further divided into a section on:
- Condemnation (Rom 1-3a)
- Justification (Rom 3b-5)
Three groups Paul condemns in Romans 1-3
- Heathen (Rom 1)
- Moral man (Rom 2a)
- Religious man (Rom 2b-3a)
Romans 6 gives the right plan of Sanctification (Union with Christ) and the four steps to this plan.
- Know: We are dead, buried, & raised with Christ
- Reckon: Accept & personally apply this
- Yield: To Christ
- Obey
Romans 7 gives the wrong perversion of Sanctification.
-Self effort to keep God's commandment
Romans 8 Gives the power of sanctification
- Dependance on the Spirit