1st Corinthians 4:7 (see also 1st Corinthians 9:16-19)
For who regards you as superior? What do you have that you did not receive? And if you did receive it, why do you boast as if you had not received it?
Augustine explains: “For I did not think that faith was preceded by God’s grace, so that by its means would be given to us what we might profitably ask, except that we could not believe if the proclamation of the truth did not precede; but that we should consent when the gospel was preached to us I thought was our own doing, and came to us from ourselves. And this my error is sufficiently indicated in some small works of mine written before my episcopate.” (On the Predestination of the Saints, emphasis mine) Augustine adds: “In the solution of this question I laboured indeed on behalf of the free choice of the human will, but God’s grace overcame, and I could only reach that point where the apostle is perceived to have said with the most evident truth, ‘For who maketh thee to differ? and what hast thou that thou hast not received? Now, if thou hast received it, why dost thou glory as if thou receivedst it not?’ [1 Cor. iv. 7] And this the martyr Cyprian was also desirous of setting forth when he compressed the whole of it in that title: ‘That we must boast in nothing, since nothing is our own.’ [Cypr. Test. Book iii. ch. 4] This is why I previously said that it was chiefly by this apostolic testimony that I myself had been convinced, when I thought otherwise concerning this matter; and this God revealed to me as I sought to solve this question when I was writing, as I said, to the Bishop Simplicianus. This testimony, therefore, of the apostle, when for the sake of repressing man’s conceit he said, ‘For what hast thou which thou hast not received?’ [1 Cor. iv. 7] does not allow any believer to say, I have faith which I received not. All the arrogance of this answer is absolutely repressed by these apostolic words. Moreover, it cannot even be said, ‘Although I have not a perfected faith, yet I have its beginning, whereby I first of all believed in Christ.’ Because here also is answered: “But what hast thou that thou hast not received? Now, if thou hast received it, why dost thou glory as if thou receivedst it not?” (On the Predestination of the Saints, emphasis mine)
According to the article, by the instruction of Cyprian, Augustine was persuaded that he was previously wrong about the nature of “preceded” grace (also known as Prevenient Grace, which Arminians teach as being resistible while Calvinists teach as being irresistible), and wrong that salvation was in any way subject to a person’s voluntary “consent” or “choice of the will,” but strictly an irresistible gift of God “only to the elect.” Augustine indicates that the source of his prior error was due to having not “carefully sought” the nature of the “election of grace,” in having “discovered little concerning the calling itself.” The foundation of Augustine’s revelation is the concept that what a person may themselves wrongly perceive as being voluntary, is actually involuntary.
Concerning Augustine, John Calvin writes: “Lest anyone should say, my faith, my righteousness, or something of the kind, distinguishes me from others, the great teacher of the Gentiles meets all such thoughts by saying: What hast thou that hast not received? (I Cor 4:7)--from whom, unless from Him who distinguishes you from others in not giving to them what He gave to you? He goes on: Faith therefore from beginning to end is the gift of God; and that this gift is given to some and not to others, no one can at all doubt, unless he wish to contest the most manifest testimonies of Scripture.” (Concerning the Eternal Predestination of God, p.63, emphasis mine)
The conclusion of Cyprian, Augustine and Calvin, concerning 1st Corinthians 4:7, that faith in salvation is an involuntary “gift,” not subject to a person’s voluntary “consent” or “choice of the will.”
Now consider the passage in context, of “servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God.”
1st Corinthians 1:1-13 states: “Let a man regard us in this manner, as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God. In this case, moreover, it is required of stewards that one be found trustworthy. But to me it is a very small thing that I may be examined by you, or by any human court; in fact, I do not even examine myself. For I am conscious of nothing against myself, yet I am not by this acquitted; but the one who examines me is the Lord. Therefore do not go on passing judgment before the time, but wait until the Lord comes who will both bring to light the things hidden in the darkness and disclose the motives of men’s hearts; and then each man’s praise will come to him from God. Now these things, brethren, I have figuratively applied to myself and Apollos for your sakes, so that in us you may learn not to exceed what is written, so that no one of you will become arrogant in behalf of one against the other. For who regards you as superior? What do you have that you did not receive? And if you did receive it, why do you boast as if you had not received it? You are already filled, you have already become rich, you have become kings without us; and indeed, I wish that you had become kings so that we also might reign with you. For, I think, God has exhibited us apostles last of all, as men condemned to death; because we have become a spectacle to the world, both to angels and to men. We are fools for Christ’s sake, but you are prudent in Christ; we are weak, but you are strong; you are distinguished, but we are without honor. To this present hour we are both hungry and thirsty, and are poorly clothed, and are roughly treated, and are homeless; and we toil, working with our own hands; when we are reviled, we bless; when we are persecuted, we endure; when we are slandered, we try to conciliate; we have become as the scum of the world, the dregs of all things, even until now.”
1st Corinthians 9:16-19 states: “For if I preach the gospel, I have nothing to boast of, for I am under compulsion; for woe is me if I do not preach the gospel. For if I do this voluntarily, I have a reward; but if against my will, I have a stewardship entrusted to me. What then is my reward? That, when I preach the gospel, I may offer the gospel without charge, so as not to make full use of my right in the gospel. For though I am free from all men, I have made myself a slave to all, so that I may win more.”
This refers to the Holy Spirit’s various gifts to Christians as servants of Christ and stewards of the Gospel, in which Christians are held accountable for the gifts that we have received, and are not to become jealous or arrogant over other Christians. This is not about a class of elect-unbelievers who are unconsciously gifted faith, and who are under compulsion in the stewardship of Calvinism’s elect.
In terms of the claim that faith is not of ourselves, it is actually salvation that is not of ourselves, since it is not by our works under the Law, but by the gracious free gift of God that we are saved by simply placing our trust in Him, and in His promises, rather than placing our trust in ourselves. Ephesians 2:8-9 states: “For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not as a result of works, so that no one may boast.” Romans 6:23 agrees that salvation is the gift: “For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.” Furthermore, Romans 3:27 indicates that boasting is specifically excluded by a law of faith: “Where then is boasting? It is excluded. By what kind of law? Of works? No, but by a law of faith.” Quite the contrary in Calvinism which maintains that boasting can only be excluded by a law of unconscious, involuntary Irresistible Grace. Paul even plainly tells us where faith comes from, and which is not made into a mysterious gift to some and not others: “So faith comes from hearing, and hearing by the word of Christ.” (Romans 10:17) However to a Calvinist, faith comes from grace, and grace by the secret election of God.